“I’m willing to admit that I may not always be right, but I’m never wrong” — Samuel Goldwyn

Category: Waste to Energy

Water in the desert

Djibouti — Potential Areas for Development, Some Thoughts

Areas identified for development are those, which  according to my perspective would have an all-round beneficial effect on communities. The choice of processes to implement them would fit in with local conditions, and would be subject to modifications. Each activity would have zero-waste, zero pollution processes.

A Conversation

During the course of a conversation was asked: Which country would be my choice in Africa today for investing, in addition to the Caribbean and Northern Europe.
My answer: I’d look at investments in the same way as the other two geographic areas, from the point of view of how it would help in the economic empowerment of the common people.

The primary factor influencing my choice was was the political environment in that country. If that was stable, and was likely to be so in the future, with a low crime rate, then an operational strategy could be put into place. Foreign investors need to be insulated from local political pressures if a country is to benefit from the investment and technology they bring with them. They require the support of all political groupings for all-round benefit of communities. The second factor was the potential for development.

Narrowed my choice down to two countries, one on the west coast, and one on the east coast, and chose Djibouti.

All the areas would require significant investment, some more, some less. My simple answer is, that the required funds can be generated, if one knows how to go about the process.

In my case these investments would be driven more by socioeconomic objectives rather than a pure profit motive. It isn’t that profits won’t be made, they will be, tangible and intangible. A business model will ensure that a share of the profits up to the retail level, will go to those associated with the various projects.

Without getting into details, which form the subject matter of reports prepared by international consultants, presented in beautiful folders with a country report, charts, graphs, statistics, background matter, cash flow projections, etcetera, we shall proceed to what to my mind are the areas where I would like to be involved in.

Djibouti

The official title of the country is the Republic of Djibouti.

Map of Djibouti

Quoting from earthwise.bgs.ac.uk:

The economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for 80% of GDP, with commercial activities focused on the country’s free trade policies and transport links. Industry, including fishing and fish processing, and growing salt production, accounts for around 17% of GDP. The desert environment limits agricultural production, which accounts for only 3% of GDP. Rural people traditionally relied on nomadic pastoralism, but rural populations are now small: three quarters of Djibouti’s inhabitants live in cities. Its limited natural resources mean that Djibouti relies heavily on energy and food imports. Despite the importance of services to the economy, there is very high unemployment. Nevertheless, relative political stability also means that the country has become an important country of passage for refugees, asylum seekers and economic migrants from surrounding countries.

Djibouti is an arid country with low and erratic rainfall, and limited surface water resources, and it relies almost entirely on groundwater for drinking water and irrigation. Increases in water demand have led to intensive exploitation of groundwater from the mainly volcanic aquifers across the country, with consequent falling groundwater levels and groundwater quality deterioration in many areas. Periodic droughts in recent years, with reduced recharge, have put even more pressure on groundwater resources.

One of the immediate areas which comes to mind is the re-development of existing villages, towns, and cities, and the building up of new ones, offering economic opportunities, so that the population can be more widely dispersed and employed gainfully all over the country. I have no doubt that the Government would have thought of this aspect. All that remains is for those plans to be refined to be implemented, [investment].

Water — The Basic Building Block

Water

Djibouti has a large sea coast. Our primary process for sourcing water supplies would be desalination, and taking it inland in phases till about 20 kilometres. [An assessment on taking pipelines further inland could be decided after that]. A secondary and simultaneous choice would be the use of Atmospheric Water Generators (AWG’s) for producing potable water from air. The Relative Humidity varies from 43% to 74%, well within the operating parameters of AWG’s.

Would coordinate with local authorities for processing waste water and sewage. Recycled water can be used for irrigation. Power can generated from sewage.

The major use of desalinated water would be for greening, (keeping in mind that we’re operating in a desert area), using suitable varieties of grass, and nutrient-based irrigation methods.

In most desalination processes, brine left over from the desalination process is released back into the sea. We would use it to make saltwater batteries, to be used in conjunction with solar and wind power facilities, in urban or rural areas for 24-hour power.

Rainwater Harvesting: Even though the rainfall is erratic, the potential for rainwater harvesting exists, and based on past patterns of flash floods, a system of storm-water channels and tanks for storage can be planned to prevent runoffs.

Freshwater Fish Farming: To open up another economic area would also explore the rearing of freshwater fish as an area of activity.

Note: The ocean between Djibouti, Yemen, Oman and other neighbouring countries have a very high level of oxygen depletion and are considered a ‘dead zone’. The amount of fish caught as time goes on will continue to decrease,  as will their quality, affecting the fishing industry. The only way forward is mariculture and as mentioned above rearing of freshwater fish.

Ethiopia

While on water let’s examine the water resource situation in Djibouti’s neighbour Ethiopia.

Ethiopia has 12 river basins with an annual runoff volume of 122 billion m3 of water and an estimated 2.6 – 6.5 billion m3 of ground water potential. This corresponds to an average of 1,575 m3 of physically available water per person per year, a relatively large volume. However, due to large spatial and temporal variations in rainfall and lack of storage, water is often not available where and when needed. Only about 3% of water resources are used, of which only about 11% (0.3% of the total) is used for domestic water supply. Source: ‘Water Resources’ on https://ethiopianinstitute.org/water-resources/

Storage resources can be organised along rivers, with generation of electricity by mini- and micro-hydro power plants. Large dams are not required, they do more damage than the benefits they are supposed to confer. Storm water drainage channels leading to storage tanks need to be planned for rainwater harvesting.
[Investments can be organised for a holistic plan. Ethiopia can also benefit from the growing of Industrial Hemp for creating a whole range of economic activity].

Industrial Hemp (the non-THC variety)

The primary choice of crop to start agricultural operations would be Industrial Hemp, IH, (from which over 27,000 products can be made), after which we could look at growing other crops, vegetables and fruits. They would be grown using organic methods without chemical fertilisers and using organic pesticides. IH is ready for harvesting in 90 to 120 days. [Industrial Hemp is not a source for THC]. Environmentally one acre of IH absorbs 4X the amount of Carbon Dioxide as one acre of grown trees. Hemp is ready for harvesting in 90 to 120 days, a grown tree takes 25+ years. It is also good for soil remediation, in this case it’ll be used to prepare the desert soil so that it can be used for planting other crops.

Industrial Hemp Farming

Harvesting of Industrial Hemp. From shift.is

Uses of IH

15 Ways Hemp Can Save the World (link)
Growing hemp prevents pesticide pollution ♦ Hemp helps restores soil fertility ♦ Hemp can produce biodegradable plastics ♦ Hemp plant absorbs toxic metals ♦ Hemp is an outstanding renewable biofuelFabrics made from hemp do not contain chemical residue ♦ Hemp can reduce effects of carbon emissions ♦ Cultivating hemp prevents deforestation ♦ Industrial hemp conserves water ♦ Hemp supports sustainable farming practices ♦ Growing hemp prevents soil compaction and erosion ♦ Hemp builds stronger and healthier homes ♦ Hemp reduces air pollution ♦ Hemp grows in almost any environment ♦ Hemp can help curb world hunger

7 reasons why you should start consuming Hemp (link)
A powerhouse of healthy nutrients ♦ Reduces the risk of heart disease ♦ Boosts immunity ♦ Gets rid of stress ♦ Acts as a pain reliever ♦ Helps in healthy weight loss ♦ Aids in digestion ♦ Improves skin and hair

Potential for establishing textile manufacturing facilities [fabrics, garments, furnishings]. Djibouti already has a weaving tradition in place, hemp fabrics will offer diversification. Production of hemp paper, as well as oil extraction facilities and units for production of edible downstream products. Hemp plastic units. Waste to energy units for using the biomass. Seed-cake after oil extraction can be used hemp flour, and for fish and cattle feed. Also manufactured wood suitable for a wide range of wood products.
[Generation of earning opportunities and jobs from each economic segment].

Soilless Farming

Soilless farming uses about 5% of the amount of water used in conventional farming, [ideal for arid areas], to grow pesticide free produce. The growing area in such farms have a multiplication factor, four to thirty times the ground area used for conventional growing. This initiative does involve an initial capital expenditure. Each such farm will have its own power supply using solar and wind, as well as cold storage’s, and reefers for transport and supply.

Veget

A part of such farms will be used for growing flowers, mainly to be used for extraction of essential oils to be used for manufacture of perfumes and cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The biomass after the flowers are harvested will be used to operate a waste to energy plant.
[Produce would be supplied for available for domestic consumption, food processing, and exports. Generation of earning opportunities and jobs].

Dairy Farming, Processed Products, Meat, Leather

Cows and Milk

With the availability of water, it would be possible to establish a series of dairy farms, (in addition to the existing ones), which would allow the production of milk, processed dairy products, meat, and hides. The availability of hides opens up the possibility of processing hides for fine leather, and thereby leather products.

Dairy and Leather Products

Varieties of cheese; beef being grilled; leather bag

Goats: Since goats are reared it would be worthwhile exploring the establishment of fixed farms for goat-rearing communities. Goats contribute to desertification, because they uproot grass by the roots when they graze, unlike other ungulates. Fenced-off rearing spaces with feeding troughs for the goats would enable rearing as well as preventing damage to the land.
[Goat milk, cheese, mutton, leather].

Renewable Energy

Djibouti from all reports is self-sufficient in generating electrical power, and has a surplus. All activity areas planned would generate their own power requirements — solar, wind, biomass.

Golf — Leisure, Tourism, Training

Djibouti has one desert golf course at  Douda. It could be greened and made into a regular golf course, with a supply of desalinated water. Would like to develop another one or two, covered with solar panels, (150 acres+), which would house a golf academy to train young men and women from schools and colleges, to enable them to play professionally by the time they finish their studies. Lights would be fitted under the solar panels enabling it to be used as a day-and-night course.

Douda Golf Club

Golf course at Douda Golf Club

Other Sports

If we consider desert heat as a resource, it can be used for cooling systems. Consider a completely covered stadium cooled using desert heat, with solar panels on top to provide power for the lighting, supported by wind power and battery storage systems.

The one I have in mind, would allow football (soccer) and hockey to be played in the centre and have a running track around it. (Used to have one like that in the school I studied in, except it wasn’t covered).

Stadium

Indoor, cooled facilities for: tennis, badminton, basketball, and volleyball, any other indoor sport. These would provide facilities to sportsperson’s and the general public. However the major objective is to provide training facilities.

Basalt Fibre

Basalt Rebar

According to geological reports 60% to 70% of the country is covered with basalt rocks. Potential exists to establish manufacturing facilities for basalt fibre and rebars to be used in infrastructure, and exports. Basalt is not affected by sea water and does not corrode like steel.

Some More Thoughts

Aviation — current state

Of the five companies offering aviation services in Djibouti, who are shown to be active, only one has a fleet of two 25-year-old aircraft. There are several small airports over the country. Would require a comprehensive development plan encompassing both airports [size, services, engineering services] and aircraft [choice of aircraft, fleet size], to build up a viable aviation sector for it to be able to deliver economic benefits.
[Potential to collaborate or takeover an active company, and develop a regional airline, using turboprop aircraft, using them for passenger and cargo].

Transportation — Road and Rail

Haven’t touched on the subject of transportation, both road and rail. From available information a certain level of road and rail connectivity already exists. The challenge would be to develop new road and rail networks, and upgrade existing networks to provide smooth connectivity supporting economic activity of all kinds, as well as leisure travel.

Multimedia Studio Facilities, Skill Training

Most countries especially small ones possess a pool of talent in the arts with their own cultural traditions. However they’re hampered in reaching out to audiences due to a lack of production facilities. It would be worthwhile setting up studio facilities, audio and video, especially for young artistes to be able to reach out to a global audience, along with a skill centre for training, (at no cost to the trainees). It would be something like this. Link to proposed skill centre in Punjab.

With the availability of water and cooling systems

Poultry
The availability of [desalinated] water, and water-based systems for cooling large areas, would make it possible to rear poultry (chicken, turkey, quail, duck, geese, etc.), by providing cooled halls for feeding areas, pools for the aquatic birds, and areas for the birds to roost. So the doors open for supply of eggs, meat, and processed/cured meat products, (hams, sausages, salamis, etc.), which makes it another income generating area for women’s groups. The [meat] waste can be processed for manure and other products — zero-waste, zero-pollution. Waste water would be recycled and used for watering grassy areas.

Horticulture
Apart from soilless farming mentioned above, available information suggests that there is a large scope for horticulture products, using both organic farming, and controlled environment pesticide free farming processes.

Horticulture

MM

There are a lot of other areas which have potential and require looking into, which can be taken up once the main activities are established.

All in all Djibouti would be a good place to invest in for development. The underlying principle is that each area of development generates either jobs or earning opportunities, no raw materials are exported, only finished goods, and profit is not the sole motive.

Image credits: theodora.com/maps; technobasalt.com; golfadvisor.com; Unsplash.com — MRJN Photography, Maira Salazar, David Nicolai, Paula Hermann, Alana Harris, Annie Spratt, Jonathan Borba, Eilive Sonas-Aceron, Ertiom Vallat, Maksim Shutov, Alice Butenko, Nadine Primeau, Megan Markham; Source for ‘Uses for Industrial Hemp’ image — truthinsideofyou.org

‘Process — Do Not Recycle’

Note: For some mysterious reason known to the gods of cyberspace, my pieces on processing of plastic waste vanished from here. I am combining both pieces and re-writing this from my notes.

When processes are dealt with in a holistic fashion, they have a visible and positive environmental and economic impact.

Quoting from an earlier piece:
We have a tendency to view things in isolation, whereas everything in the universe is inter-connected. What is considered as ‘waste’ is the starting point for something that is useful, and so on, till we arrive at a state of zero-waste. Nature does not waste anything, only man does.

So a solution is produced for one ‘problem’, without taking into account interconnections with that ‘problem’, and in the end we have produced more problems than solutions.

Dealing with plastic waste is a world-wide problem and has solutions. Banning plastics is not a solution. Dealing with plastic waste as a resource is. There is a lot of it already accumulated, and more being generated every day. Taking a somewhat contrarian view I am proposing that till alternatives are developed for using plastic packaging and products, plastic waste be used as a valuable resource, which is why this piece is titled, ‘Process — Do Not Recycle’.

Recycling creates it own set of problems, as parts of the unused waste then either clogs up drains and waterways, or is dumped in landfills.

Processing on the other hand, (properly done), converts the plastic waste to usable products, leaving no waste for a landfill or polluting the environment. ‘Properly done’ is the keyword here. Like all processes, proper protocols have to be followed, for the desired results. It will be noticed that wherever problems have arisen, it is due to cutting corners, whether in the process of collection or in processing.

The Potential

Let us see what is possible when plastic waste is processed. This includes all kinds of plastic wastes including synthetic fabrics.

One tonne of plastic waste has the potential to:

  • generate 1 MW of electricity from waste heat generated during the process of conversion;
  • generate around 900 litres of fuels, the final products — diesel, aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, fuel oil — determined by the processes used, which are currently available;
  • generate cooling, air conditioning, or heat, depending on the location.

The properly done processing means the plastic waste is converted in a sealed building, where the air from the inside of the facility is fed through a scrubber, before it is released into the atmosphere. This is not a process for cutting corners, where accountancy procedures are allowed to override technological and safety considerations.

The positives

  • Employment generation, direct and indirect, starting from the collection process, processing, and distribution (of fuels).
  • No plastic waste in the streets, drains, waterways, which means cleaner rivers and oceans, and no plastic waste going to landfills.
  • Creation of value in terms of electricity generation, and fuels.
  • Cleaner environment.

To those countries engaged in a debate on exporting their plastic waste, I’d say don’t. Process it, don’t throw away a valuable resource by exporting it.

I have not touched on household and commercial organic waste, which can be used to generate Methane (to electricity), Manure, and Water. Again zero waste goes to a landfill.

Similarly I haven’t touched on cotton products and textiles, which can be processed for bio-ethanol.

The proposition is, that it is possible to have a zero-waste situation if the waste problem is tackled in a holistic manner.

Plastic ‘Waste’, Growing Hemp, Organic Farming, and Water

[Note: This article was written in 2016. The propositions advanced still remain valid as of 2019]

How are plastic waste, growing hemp, organic farming, and water, connected?

The fabric of life is built up of many threads, which are supposed to combine to make a wondrous fabric. However the generation of waste and dealing with it, makes an ugly tear in the fabric, and patchwork does not work.

We have a tendency to view things in isolation, whereas everything in the universe is inter-connected. What is considered as ‘waste’ is the starting point for something that is useful, and so on, till we arrive at a state of zero-waste. Nature does not waste anything, only man does.

So a solution is produced for one ‘problem’, without taking into account interconnections with that ‘problem’, and in the end we have produced more problems than solutions.

Shall be joining some dots to put some things into perspective. As always, the viewpoint is India-centric, but the solutions can be applied anywhere.

Plastic ‘Waste’ to no landfill and no pollution

This  is a world-wide problem and has solutions. Banning plastics is not a solution. Dealing with plastic waste as a resource is. Taking a somewhat contrarian view I am proposing that till alternatives are developed to the use of plastic packaging and products, plastic waste be used as a valuable resource.

What we see around us are two things, civic illiteracy which makes us throw things (especially polythene bags, plastic products, paper, etc.) on the streets, and civic inefficiency in collection of that waste.

Political parties display a lot of zeal when it comes to renaming cities. That zeal is missing when it concerns improving the quality of life of citizens. If political parties had to pay from their coffers for properties vandalised and damaged, business lost, and the cost of re-printing stationery of hundreds of thousands of businesses, they would lose a lot of their enthusiasm for re-naming. Airports and stations are given grand names, which are then reduced to acronyms, and the places are still referred to by their old names.

As per a survey conducted by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in 60 cities of the country, the quantum of plastic waste generation is estimated to be 15,342.6 tonnes per day, or 5,600,000 tonnes per year. The total may be much more.

“We are the first to have the capability to convert 1 tonne of broken buckets, mugs, toothpaste tubes, bottle caps and other polyolefin products into 850 litres of the cleanest grade of diesel. This is the best news yet for the planet this year because henceforth plastic waste will be viewed more as a resource than a nuisance,” said Dr Harsh Vardhan at the Institute of Petroleum campus in Dehradun on 17 April 2015. (Source)

The diesel thus produced burns more cleanly than the diesel produced from crude oil.

Now to see the potential of that amount of plastic waste for India. That 5.6 million tonnes of ‘waste’ translates to 4,760,000,000 litres (or 4.76 billion litres) according to the IIP projections. The Indian Railways consume 2 billion litres annually. Commercially available plants produce ca. 600–900 litres/tonne of plastic, which would give us 3.36–5.06 billion litres. The diesel so produced, needs to be viewed as a strategic resource. Viewing it in a different way, of the total amount of diesel consumed, consumption by the railways is 3.24%, and buses 9.55%. The agriculture sector is a major consumer with about 13% of the total consumption accounted for by it. Within agriculture, the consumption is as follows: tractors (7.4%), pump-sets (2.9%) and agriculture implements (2.7%). (Source).

Also generated is 200 kilogrammes of petcoke per tonne of plastic.

Processes are also available for complete combustion of the plastic waste with no waste leftover.

A company based in Scotland offers this process for what it calls End of Life Plastics, for producing alternative  synthetic fuels, which are direct and commercially profitable liquid fuels that are direct import substitutes for fossil fuels. The have created from 1 tonne of end of life plastic, approximately 1,000 litres of liquid fuel:
— 700 litres Diesel,
— 100 litres of Kerosene,
— 200 litres of Lite Oil.

Delhi generates 251,850 tonnes of plastic every year (CPCB), which means there is a potential of 151.11 million litres of diesel and 50,370 tonnes of petcoke. Used without gasification, the petcoke generated can be used to run a 10–12 MWe plant, as per the figures of consumption for Reliance’s proposed 4×90 MWe plant, at Mora Village, in Surat district.

Waste-1Waste-2The nature of the problem is brought out in these images. Civic apathy by citizens, no segregation and collection, and inefficient municipal services, which do not allow the waste to be used as a resource. (The cows should be in a shelter and not eating rubbish. Easier to protest rather than to take up the responsibility of looking after them). So it is not plastic waste, (which includes bags), which is the culprit, and as mentioned above banning it is not the solution.

Plastic waste needs to be segregated at three levels:
(1) Homes: Bag to collect milk poly-packs, polythene bags, disposable plates and cups, water bottles, any other items like plastic wrapping used for packaging.
(2) Roadside vendors, restaurants, places of worship, shopping complexes, market places, Parks: Use red coloured bins, since the volume will be larger.
(3) Roads and streets: Red coloured bins with an efficient collection system. Involve NGO’s who can coordinate resource collectors (waste collectors).
Once bins are made available on roadsides, market places, office and shopping complexes, parks, etc., implement littering fines. Involve ex-servicemen here. (CCTV systems like the ones to be installed in Delhi, should prevent theft of bins).

Commercially available plants, with a capacity of processing 10 tonnes of plastic daily, with an output of 6,000–9,000 litres of diesel are available in India. The plants costs Rs 10–12 crores (approx 1.47–1.76 million US$), and have a payback time of 3 years.

Solution: Delhi generates at the municipality level 689.5 metric tonnes every day, (CPCB). Assuming 90% of this can be processed, Delhi would require about 62 plants of this size, so that the collecting area for that plant is within a 5–7 kilometre radius. These can be distributed all around Delhi, rather than having two or three huge plants.

Result: There will be no plastic waste to throw, which means no clogging of drains, no animals or birds ingesting it, and nothing going to a landfill. Clean diesel will become available, which can be used by a wide range of users. This would also be an employment generator.

However there is a bigger opportunity, to solve a bigger problem. Plastic waste in the oceans.

Ocean-Cleanup-Array-Boyan-SlatThis system has been devised by a 19-year old to collect plastic waste in the oceans. The headline of the article reads, 19-Year-Old Develops Ocean Cleanup Array That Could Remove 7,250,000 Tons Of Plastic From the World’s Oceans. To quote, ‘His ingenious solution could potentially save hundreds of thousands of aquatic animals annually, and reduce pollutants (including PCB and DDT) from building up in the food chain. It could also save millions per year, both in clean-up costs, lost tourism and damage to marine vessels.’

India can use this method and start an initiative in the oceans surrounding it. It would have three spin-offs: (1) the oceans would be cleaner, which would mean more and healthier fish, and marine life in general, (2) it would get raw material for its plastic-to-diesel industry, and (3) fishing boats can get their requirements of diesel from this source. (However should other countries decide to go in for the same initiative, there would be need to define geographical boundaries of operation).

Growing Hemp (IH)

The Hemp referred to here is Industrial Hemp. The reason why it figures here is because it is a source for bio-plastics, along with more than 25,000 products which can be made from it. Since we started this article with plastic, we shall keep our main focus on plastics which can be made with hemp.

Henry Ford swinging an axe at his 1941 car to demonstrate the toughness of the plastic trunk door made of soybean and hemp. (From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village.)

Henry Ford swinging an axe at his 1941 car to demonstrate the toughness of the plastic trunk door made of soybean and hemp. (From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village.)

Source: www. dfwnormal.org

Source: www. dfwnormal.org

Hemp-Everything PlasticIn case you are not aware, aside from plastics, Hemp can be used for:

Source: www.truthinsideofyou.org

Source: www.truthinsideofyou.org

Unfortunately even though the government is aware to some extent of the uses of hemp, there has been no significant investment in the growing of hemp. As things stand, it would require a significant amount of investment to get the whole hemp eco-system to be established.

Organic Farming and Urban Farming

The effort is to present solutions to cut down pollution and have zero-waste going to landfills. Have already written about this in ‘Kitchen “Waste”, Surplus Power, and No Pollution’.

The highlights of the article were total conversion of kitchen and organic waste to electricity and liquid fertilizer.

At his juncture I would like to differ with those advocating using kitchen waste for composting. Composting is good in its place, but can only be used for growing activities. Whereas, the method I have advocated, provides electricity, as well as organic fertilizer. When we say use waste as a resource, then we need to extract the maximum potential from that resource. Composting does not do that.

I had mentioned Urban Farming in that article as well. This would utilize a part of the organic fertilizer and provide organically grown fresh vegetables and greens in each locality at fair prices. There is no reason that organically grown vegetables should be sold at premium prices. Also vegetable supplies would not be hit in case of agitations and strikes.

Any surpluses can be preserved by organizations such as the one below, so that there is no wastage of fruits and vegetables, which according to some estimates is around Rs 40,000 crore per annum.

Source: Source: Adi Ayur Foods and Beverages Private Limited

Source: Adi Ayur Foods and Beverages Private Limited

Water

This is a picture of dead fish in Ulsoor Lake in Bangalore which appeared in the press. One of the reasons cited is the discharge of untreated sewage into the lake.

Source: timesofindia.indiatimes.com

Source: timesofindia.indiatimes.com

Having lived in Bangalore, (renaming doesn’t sit well having used that name for over 6 decades), from 1953 to 1957, and visiting the lake a few time every month during my stay there, remember Ulsoor Lake as a beautiful place. Again a victim of civic illiteracy and civic inefficiency.

The solution for this situation, as it is all over India, is to treat sewage at localised points all over a city, and not take the sewage to a few ‘big’ sewage plants. Have a large number of water bodies for recharging ground water, as well as water sources. (Heavily penalize any real estate development over or near a water body).

This what environmentally insensitive governments have done to what was once called Najafgarh Jheel (Lake), which is another name for the Sahibi river, a tributary of the river Yamuna, which once occupied more than 300 square kilometres of area in Southwest Delhi. Read more here.

NajafgarhJheel-1Why can’t our drainage channels, (in Delhi) be waterways like this one in Holland,

holanda_amsterdaminstead of being like this.

Gandha-Nullah-1According to International Wastewater Systems: Sewage is the Ultimate Renewable Energy Source. According to their site, ‘In the search for new and sustainable energy sources few people realize that there is an energy source flowing beneath the surface of our cities. Sewage! This abundant, free energy source remains mostly untapped.’

Here is a video presentation of two of their installations.

And here is one from the Arizona State University titled ‘From Wastewater to Renewable Energy’ (June 2012). When algae are put to work cleaning up wastewater, they can produce biofuel at the same time. A team of ASU graduate students is working with the Arizona Centre for Algae Technology and Innovation to clean up the environment while creating clean, renewable energy. Their project received initial funding from the EPA’s P3 program (People, Prosperity and the Planet). The video is produced and edited by Kirk Davis, Office of Knowledge Enterprise Development. Additional photography by Keith Jennings and Matthew Larsen.

Solution: I don’t see municipalities investing in these processes. (Delhi recently experienced a strike by sanitary workers on account of non-payment of salaries). Companies need to come forward with entirely new PPP business models which have to break free of tripping and tipping contracts. Municipalities and land-owning authorities have to accord priority to allotting land for sewage processing facilities, and other waste-processing facilities, rather than shopping malls. (Not much use having shiny malls with no water or power).

Result: Availability of potable water, groundwater recharge, source of renewable energy for power, source of biofuel. (Tax concessions, such as no excise duty on fuels produced from waste, like the one given to biodiesel).

Citizens and the government will have to think very differently, if they want an energy rich, (the first building block of development), pollution free nation. Those beautiful smart cities and towns being thought of will have to use these processes, to remain smart, otherwise they will just be real estate ‘developments’, which will enrich a few people and impoverish the nation.

All these areas would present an excellent area of investment for humanitarian funds. These are all community focused activities, with the accent on the community rather than profits. Would be pleased to provide advice and support to any such investor/s.

Kitchen “Waste”, Surplus Power, and No Pollution

Waste Resources and Pollution are intrinsically connected. Tackle one and it immediately has a positive effect on the other. One cannot tackle parts of an ecosystem in isolation and hope for results. One has to deal with all parts of a system — all the gears in a watch have to mesh together perfectly if one wants perfect time. Have tried to suggest solutions using currently available technologies and processes. Better solutions may be available. As always my suggestion to readers is to offer solutions, rather than try and pick holes.

Don’t find fault, find a remedy; Anybody can complain. — Henry Ford

Several things have happened simultaneously in the last week of November–first week of December 2015: floods in Chennai, COP21, (also known as the 2015 Paris Climate Conference), and the Arvind Kejriwal government trying to press into effect pollution control measures on an emergency basis.

Government functionaries have been quick to blame climate change for the floods in Chennai, forgetting  that it is their policies, (or absence of them), which were directly responsible for the floods. Swati Thiyagarajan of NDTV, has written an excellent article titled The Stupid Decisions That Left Chennai So Vulnerable, illustrating that the Chennai floods were a total man-made disaster, as are a lot of environmental disasters in India.

World leaders seem to have reached some kind of an agreement in Paris, though no one is sure whether they have reached any kind of agreement, or not. The results which will follow from their deliberations remain to be seen.

In Delhi, the Kejriwal government is trying to tackle problems which have built up over the years due to the implementation of faulty policies, influenced by the pressure of various lobbies and vote-bank considerations, whose consequences were either not foreseen, or brushed under the carpet.

The problems of Delhi cover a very wide canvas, which we’re sure the Kejriwal government will find solutions to, since they are about the only elected government which seems to have some kind of vision and plan regarding what has to be done.

However since this piece is supposed to be about about utilising waste resources and controlling pollution, we shall focus on those. (I am not laying out a detailed blueprint here, but pointing out what can be done and the benefits).

Using “Waste”: Energy Potential of Organic/Animal Kitchen “Waste”

Disposal of waste is not a problem confined to Delhi, but to the country, and most parts of the world. The only way to tackle it is, to follow a basic postulate: nothing should go to any “landfill”, in fact the word “landfill” should not exist in the lexicon of any municipality or local authority. The corollary to the postulate is “localised processing”.

Let us start from a basic unit, the place of dwelling, which could be a single room in a slum, or a huge bungalow, classified as a household in the Census.

All of them generate by-products of everyday living. We shall focus on the kitchen, and leave recycling of water and sewage to another time. Kitchen waste is something which is common to villages, towns, cities (whether dumb or smart, old or new), rich or poor.

The Kejriwal government is already doing good things on the sewage and water recycling front. (I keep referring to the Delhi Government as the Kejriwal government, to make it clear that I am referring to the elected government).

Saw this in my Inbox a few days ago, a home biogas unit. The empty weight is 35 kilos, and the dimensions are: 127H × 165L × 100W cm. [Update: There are several Indian manufacturers of operationally similar units].

Home-Biogas-0

Sourced from http://www.homebiogas.com/

Here is the video link. According to the specifications on their site each unit produces 600 litres of gas (approx. 65% CH4, 35% CO2) per day, with an input of up to 6 litres of food waste or up to 15 litres of animal manure (dairy farms, urban–rural areas). The gas can be used to run a micro-turbine, but it can be used more efficiently when it is burned to generate steam, which in turn can be used to generate electricity with a low pressure module like the EM-150 (from EAWC), rated at 150 kW at a steam pressure of 5 bars. One could also use Enertime’s Organic Rankine Cycle machines, which can convert heat sources (between 90°C and 300°C) directly into power with a 75% efficiency in cogeneration. (These are examples. Other combinations can be used).

The point that is being made, is that no organic resource should be transported to a landfill, but used at its point of origin. (This eliminates a big cause of environmental pollution)

According to the census figures for 2011, there were 3,340,000 households in Delhi. Let us say they have increased to 3,350,000 in 2015. Assuming 8 biogas units (households) are required to feed one 150 kW module for 24 hours, we get a potential figure of  62,812 MW. (On 16 July, 2014, according to the Economic Times, the peak demand was 5,925 MW). We have still not taken into account organic/animal waste from restaurants, hotels, malls, shopping areas, wholesale and retail vegetable and fruit markets, fruit juice stalls, roadside food vendors, the slaughter house, and the like. Let us average out this figure and assume that 35,000 MW is generated using organic/inorganic waste from all sources. This makes Delhi surplus in power. (Generation of electricity from sewage has not been added to the equation).

The individual price of the biogas unit is US$ 1500. The price can be brought down once they are made in large quantities here. The same goes for the steam modules. This whole combination also meets a very important parameter, which critics of renewable energy have, 24×7 operation, and which all of us, who are supporters of renewable energy strive for. This generation model can work as a series of linked micro-grids. (I am not suggesting any business, technical, or billing model at this point. This will have to be worked out by entrepreneurs, and it would be better if no large corporate is involved in the exercise).

Consider a gated cluster of 75 flats. They have a potential capacity of 1350 kW. Let’s say 945 kW at 70% efficiency. Their peak requirement would be 600 kW at a sanctioned load of 7.5 kW (5 is the norm) which includes external lighting and power for the cluster’s water pump. They would have a surplus of approximately 350 kW to feed to an external grid. In short, each gated cluster can be made self-sufficient in electricity with zero-generation of waste.

Advantages of the biogas-steam generation model
  • Can operate on a 24×7 basis.
    (Not weather dependent, no battery storage required)
  • Will never run out of feedstock, unless people stop eating.
    (Recycled water can be used for the steam unit).
  • Ideal for an urban environment, footprint of the unit is very small (127H × 165L × 100W cm) plus a slightly bigger area for the generation unit.
  • The only waste which would need to be collected from any residential or commercial area is plastic, paper, glass, and a minuscule amount of metal. All recyclable materials.
    Plastic waste can be converted to biodiesel. [Update: Around 2,51,850 tonnes of plastic waste are generated per year in Delhi. If all of it is converted to diesel, then you get 151,110,000 litres of biodiesel per annum, and 50,370 tonnes of petcoke. Petcoke can be further gasified, and the gas used for generating on-demand electricity.]
    Efficient collection of plastic waste would also save drains from being clogged. (Banning plastic bags is not a solution till alternatives are available. Over 25,00,000 litres of milk in plastic poly-packs is supplied every day in Delhi. The disposed poly-packs are a valuable resource. Add to that disposable plastic bottles, glasses, plates, et cetera.)
    Collection would be done at source rather than have waste collectors sort through “trash” dumped on roadsides. Since there would be no trash on the roadsides, cows  and other animals would not feed on trash, and get choked with plastic. It would also cut down on flies and other insects attracted to trash
    .
    An efficient collection system coupled with fines for littering, would see the “trash” being utilised, and the streets and market places remaining clean. Which in turn would mean there would be nothing to attract flies.
    Delhi then can then have roads and streets to rival Singapore’s.
  • No land would be required for landfills, which would mean land earmarked for landfills, can be freed up for development of schools, hospitals, sports complexes, no malls.
    • No landfill therefore no pollution of air, and no leaching of toxic material into the ground, therefore no pollution of ground water.
    • No landfills mean drastic reduction of trucks required for collection and transportation of waste for long distances, which consequently means reduction of running and maintenance costs.
  • The main benefit is a cleaner city, and consequently a cleaner and an environment free of pollution.

The success of this system will depend on the efficient collection of the waste resources from individual households, which can be organized. A system of collection is already in place in Delhi and most cities. It would just need refining. [Update: This is what a waste collector has to say, though I’d rather call them Resource Collectors].

Source: The Hindu, Bengaluru, 11 December, 2015

Source: The Hindu, Bengaluru, 11 December, 2015

The costs of this kind of a system will be cheaper than any other renewable source generation system in use presently. Before doing any calculations it would worth considering healthcare costs, which would also be cut down, (remember complete ecosystems, nothing in isolation).

Killer Air-1

Source: www.vogmask.in

Trees and Prevention of Air Pollution

A by-product of the biogas unit is liquid fertilizer, which can be used for fertilizing trees, vegetation, and gardens. It is an environmental tragedy that the first thing which is common to any new project, roads or buildings, is the cutting down of trees. The authorities then announce that they will plant 1o times the amount cut down, but 10 to 20 kilometres away. It’s like cutting out someone’s lungs, and placing them several houses away and then asking that person to breathe. A 50-year old tree cannot be replaced by saplings planted elsewhere.
Why cut down 50-year old trees to widen highways. Let the additional lanes come up on the other side of the trees. In fact one can separate car and truck traffic this way.

This has been a major contributory cause of air and heat pollution. It is surprising that no one has thought of using transplantation rigs, which can transplant trees up to 15 metres in height. A certain degree of mortality is expected, but the majority of trees can be saved.

tree-planting machine5

Source: http://www.landscapeonline.com/

A tree transplantation operation by one such machine can be seen in this video clip.

The removal of trees and vegetation, cuts down on the capacity of the absorption of carbon dioxide in the areas where they are cut, and raises ambient temperatures. No trees and vegetation also add to the build up of dust. (The Delhi government is arranging for vacuum cleaning machines to suck up dust on the roads by April 2016).

interlocking-pavers-grass-paver-500x500

Source: Paving Stone (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Porous Pavement Tiles
This is another measure which has also been announced. Pavement tiles which allow grass to grow through. This will allow rain water to percolate to the ground below, prevent flooding, trap dust, and cut down on heat generated from purely concrete tiles. (Liquid fertilizer would be available in adequate quantities from biogas generation for the grass and trees).

Water Bodies
The flooding in Chennai was caused by building over catchment and drainage areas. This has happened in Delhi and the NCR also. Water bodies are a part of a healthy environmental system and need to be revived and kept alive.

Air Pollution: Vehicular
Source: thehindu.com

Source: thehindu.com

This is the immediate issue of the moment. As I mentioned at the start, the Kejriwal government is trying to tackle a problem which has built up over the years.

We can take the MPD-2021 as the main culprit, which allowed the construction of an extra floor in Delhi. Delhi does not need to go vertical, (not in a seismic zone). The development of satellite towns like Gurgaon and NOIDA were supposed to relieve population pressure in Delhi. This was nullified in one stroke.
(A thought, since all towns around Delhi want be part of the NCR, why not make the NCR a State ?)

Builder’s flats started coming up, and the illegal ones became legal. So instead of one household per plot, Delhi suddenly started having two to six households located in the same physical area, without any scaling up of the electrical, water, or sewage facilities. This placed enormous pressure on civic facilities. Another effect of this development was that cars, which were hitherto parked inside houses, were now parked on roads, and instead of one car there were four or five now — two to six households in the same space as one. So all internal roads immediately became congested, and parking started becoming a law and order problem.

The effects of this over-population spilled over to external connecting roads. Bad road engineering, coupled with indisciplined driving habits, have exacerbated the problem. Congested arterial roads exist in all areas of Delhi. Flyovers haven’t helped. They move traffic in one direction or are supposed to, but cross-traffic is held up, and idling vehicles add to air pollution, as well as wastage of fuel. We now have traffic jams on flyovers, and it wouldn’t surprise me if some of them collapse one day. They were designed for dynamic loads and not static loads.

Road engineering is one area the Kejriwal government is already working on. They seem to have worked out solutions, since they have identified the problems, so hopefully traffic will move more smoothly once changes are implemented.

Arvind Kejriwal was speaking about dedicated elevated bus corridors, a few days ago. My suggestion is that if Delhi decides to go in for the electricity generation model suggested above, the buses on those corridors should be electrically powered, which should cut down on air pollution.

Low floor buses add to traffic congestion. This is again peculiar to Delhi. They occupy too much of road space, and their drivers are not exactly like the BEST drivers in Mumbai, who stick to the left of the roads. Buses in other metros also stick to their lanes. These buses are totally unsuitable for plying on the internal roads in residential colonies, which were never designed for such huge vehicles. Have smaller sized low floor buses than the current ones to increase available road space, and make traffic movement smoother.

Traffic jam at the ISBT Anand Vihar Bus terminal in East Delhi. The DTC fleet has only 4,712 buses to carry 3.5 million passengers across the city, a number likely to go up if the government implements car rationing in Delhi. (Sonu Mehta/HT File Photo)

Traffic jam at the ISBT Anand Vihar Bus terminal in East Delhi. The DTC fleet has only 4,712 buses to carry 3.5 million passengers across the city, a number likely to go up if the government implements car rationing in Delhi. (Sonu Mehta/HT File Photo)

This is a scene repeated across most of Delhi; buses occupying multiple lanes, rather than a single lane, as they are supposed to. Bus schedules need reworking to avoid “bunching” for smooth flow of bus traffic. This would help commuters and  avoid traffic congestion at the same time.

Traffic regulation is under the domain of the police, and according to reports, the traffic police in Delhi is badly under-staffed. (I am not commenting on the governance problems of Delhi, which is not the focus of this piece. However as a citizen, I feel that control of land and the police should be with the Kejriwal government, to tackle the problems of congestion and traffic regulation, both of which affect air pollution directly).

The other vehicular factors which add to congestion and hence pollution, is indisciplined driving by two-wheelers, three-wheelers (passengers and goods), gramin seva vehicles, and over the last couple of years what are called e-rickshaws. This area can only be streamlined by the traffic police. As can be seen from the excerpt below, two-wheelers and trucks are the biggest cause of vehicular pollution in Delhi. It would therefore make more sense to get them off the roads than cars, to control vehicular pollution.

As per the draft report, [study by the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur], vehicular pollution accounts for 30 to 40 per cent of all air pollution, and of that around 34 per cent can be attributed to two-wheelers, 10 per cent to cars and 46 per cent to trucks. (Source: The Hindu, 8 December 2015)

Another cause of vehicular congestion is the allowing of weekly markets to be held on both sides of roads, leading to an increase in air pollution again. Let them be held in a large ground, so that sellers can still sell their wares, and not cause traffic congestion.

Governments have tried to get people away from using personal vehicles, particularly cars (a favourite target for environmentalists), to using public transport. Many more knowledgeable and well-informed people have already commented on this. The only way that this is going to be possible is to have buses and metro coaches with ‘seating only’ arrangements. Their users can pay more. However what must not be lost sight of is, ultimately it is public transport, and should not be treated on a commercial basis. (On a personal note, have had my pocket picked twice on the Metro, and even as a senior citizen, getting a seat is akin to winning a lottery).

The odd-even number regulation of vehicles would be effective for controlling vehicular pollution, if it targets the biggest polluters, two-wheelers and trucks. Targeting cars will not help. However, while the percentage contribution to air pollution by vehicles is smaller as compared to other sources of air pollution, it does require streamlining to reduce air pollution.

Air pollution from other sources, which can be seen below, have not been referred to. They require their own solutions along with controlling road traffic, if measures to control overall air pollution are to have any impact. Pollution from Gen sets can be cut down with the availability of 24×7 electricity, as well as consumption of diesel used by them.

Source: www.business-standard.com

Source: www.business-standard.com

 

Adoption of all the steps outlined above, should make Delhi more than self-sufficient in electricity, cut down pollution from various sources drastically, and make it truly a clean, green, city. This is a Delhi-centric piece but the solutions suggested can be applied to any metro city, and can be scaled down for smaller places.

[Reviewing this article, felt it would be incomplete without this element]

Urban Farming

Growing green roofs is now mandatory for new buildings being built in Canada and France. Middle Eastern countries facing dire food and water insecurity know that farming close to home can cut down greenhouse emissions and if farmed hydroponically can drastically cut the water bill — in some cases by 90%! Putting its money where American mouths is this company from Brooklyn called Gotham Greens which has just built the world’s largest rooftop farm — in Chicago.

To make this whole concept more integrated we add Urban Farming to the picture. This takes us to pre-kitchen waste stage. We already have liquid fertilizer and electricity available. Rooftops, barren or empty plots can be fully utilized. This will have the effect of:

  • Cutting pollution by cutting down on transportation of produce from farm to customer.
  • Creating employment for women and youth. (See image from Harlem Green below)
  • Offering fresh produce at stable prices and supplies without seasonal variations.
  • Cutting down on greenhouse emissions, and a host of other benefits.
Urban Farm of Harlem Grown (http://www.harlemgrown.org/)

Urban Farm of Harlem Grown (http://www.harlemgrown.org/)

In the middle of Harlem on a derelict plot of land where old men used to play cards, with no kids allowed, is growing one of the most exciting social projects seen this year. Harlem kids that were eating Twix bars for lunch are now eating fresh greens — food that they and their mothers are growing through a non-profit project called Harlem Grown. See more.
Latonya Assanah from Harlem, New York (pictured above) has an 8-year-old daughter who just “wouldn’t eat green things.” Today Assanah is the greenhouse manager, working days at the high-tech farm, which feeds 150 local Harlem families. It is part of the Harlem Grown non-profit farm. The farm stands on what was 4 brownstone houses in the middle of the city.

 

These images are from an urban farm run by Eden Works.

Edenworks-1Edenworks-2

There are already people involved in growing vegetables in what are called kitchen gardens. They would form a ready base for this kind of farming, and would also be able to train others. (Urban planners do need to shift their focus away from building shopping malls and constructing buildings on every available plot of land, and giving infrastructural, and economically and socially beneficial projects such as these, priority).

 

Powered by WordPress & Theme by Anders Norén